- Erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease prediction: evidence‐based guidance and consensus in Singapore:
- A significant proportion of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) exhibit early signs of coronary artery disease (CAD), and this group may develop more severe CAD than men without ED (Level 1, Grade A).
- The time interval among the onset of ED symptoms and the occurrence of CAD symptoms and cardiovascular events is estimated at 2–3 years and 3–5 years respectively; this interval allows for risk factor reduction (Level 2, Grade B).
- ED is associated with increased all‐cause mortality primarily due to increased cardiovascular mortality (Level 1, Grade A).
- All men with ED should undergo a thorough medical assessment, including testosterone, fasting lipids, fasting glucose and blood pressure measurement. Following assessment, patients should be stratified according to the risk of future cardiovascular events. Those at high risk of cardiovascular disease should be evaluated by stress testing with selective use of computed tomography (CT) or coronary angiography (Level 1, Grade A).
- Improvement in cardiovascular risk factors such as weight loss and increased physical activity has been reported to improve erectile function (Level 1, Grade A).
- In men with ED, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia should be treated aggressively, bearing in mind the potential side effects (Level 1, Grade A).
- Management of ED is secondary to stabilising cardiovascular function, and controlling cardiovascular symptoms and exercise tolerance should be established prior to initiation of ED therapy (Level 1, Grade A).
- Clinical evidence supports the use of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors as first‐line therapy in men with CAD and comorbid ED and those with diabetes and ED (Level 1, Grade A).
- Total testosterone and selectively free testosterone levels should be measured in all men with ED in accordance with contemporary guidelines and particularly in those who fail to respond to PDE5 inhibitors or have a chronic illness associated with low testosterone (Level 1, Grade A).
- Testosterone replacement therapy may lead to symptomatic improvement (improved wellbeing) and enhance the effectiveness of PDE5 inhibitors (Level 1, Grade A).
- Review of cardiovascular status and response to ED therapy should be performed at regular intervals (Level 1, Grade A).